Review-Chloroplast-associated molecular patterns (ChAMP) as concept for fine-tuned operational retrograde signalling.
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CitationUnal, D., García-Caparrós, P., Kumar, V., & Dietz, K. J. (2020). Chloroplast-associated molecular patterns as concept for fine-tuned operational retrograde signalling. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 375(1801), 20190443.
Chloroplasts compose about one-quarter of the mesophyll cell volume and contain about 60% of the cell protein. Photosynthetic carbon assimilation is the dominating metabolism in illuminated leaves. To optimize the resource expenditure in these costly organelles and to control and adjust chloroplast metabolism, an intensive transfer of information between nucleus–cytoplasm and chloroplasts occurs in both directions as anterograde and retrograde signalling. Recent research identified multiple retrograde pathways that use metabolite transfer and include reaction products of lipids and carotenoids with reactive oxygen species (ROS). Other pathways use metabolites of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen metabolism, low molecular weight antioxidants and hormone precursors to carry information between the cell compartments. This review focuses on redox- and ROS-related retrograde signalling pathways. In analogy to the microbe-associated molecular pattern, we propose the term ‘chloroplast-associated molecular pattern' which connects chloroplast performance to extrachloroplast processes such as nuclear gene tra