Monitoring of glyphosate-DNA interaction and synergistic genotoxic effect of glyphosate and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid using an electrochemical biosensor
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CitationCongur, G. (2021). Monitoring of glyphosate-DNA interaction and synergistic genotoxic effect of glyphosate and 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid using an electrochemical biosensor. Environmental Pollution, 271, 116360.
Glyphosate (GLY) is a broad-spectrum herbicide used worldwide to control broadleaf sedge, and grass weeds to control non-specific vegetation. Although it was evaluated as non-toxic agent in 20th century, its carcinogenic and genotoxic potential has being intensively investigated all over the world in the last decade. Moreover, the combination of GLY and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) has been widely applied. Although genotoxicity of GLY has been evaluated in vivo studies, there is no report in the literature for the monitoring of in vitro biointeraction of GLY and double stranded DNA, or how effect the combination of GLY and 2,4-D onto DNA. Herein, an electrochemical biosensor platform was developed for detection of the pesticide-DNA interaction by using disposable pencil graphite electrodes (PGEs). First, voltammetric detection of the interaction between GLY and DNA was investigated and the electrochemical characterization of the interaction was achieved. Taking a step further, the synergistic genotoxic effect of the mixture of GLY and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or the mixture of their herbicide forms onto DNA could be monitored. This effect was concentration dependent, and the herbicide of GLY or the use of mixture of herbicides of GLY and 2,4-D had more genotoxic effect than analytical grade of the active molecules, GLY and 2,4-D. The single-use PGEs provided to fabricate robust, eco-friendly and time saver recognition platform for monitoring of herbicide-DNA interaction with the sensitive and reliable results. It is expected that this study will lead to be designed miniaturized lab-on-a chip platforms for on-line analysis of the pesticide-nucleic acid interactions.